WebGL2 adds the ability to read a texture using pixel coordinates as well. Which way is best is up to you. I feel like it's more common to use texture coordinates than pixel coordinates.
Nowhere is this mentioned other then passing uniform with texture dimensions in pixels and calculate from there, is there a way to access these pixel coords without calculation as it is supposed here?
You can read individual pixels/texels from a texture in WebGL2 with
vec4 color = texelFetch(someUniformSampler, ivec2(pixelX, pixelY), intMipLevel);
For example, compute the average color of a texture by reading each pixel
notes: since the canvas is RGBA8 can only get integer result. Could change to some float format but that would complicate the example which is not about rendering it's about
Of course just by changing the data from R8 to RGBA8 we can do 4 arrays as once if we interleave the values
To do more requires figuring out some way to arrange the data and use an input to the fragment shader to figure out where the data is. For example we again interleave the data, 5 arrays so the data goes 0,1,2,3,4,0,1,2,3,4,0,1,2,3,4.
Let's go back to R8 and do 5 separate arrays. We need to draw 5 pixels. We can tell which pixel is being drawn by looking at
gl_FragCoord. We can use that to offset which pixels we look at and pass in how many to skip.